Jo Baer


Josephine Gail Baer (née Josephine Gail Kleinberg; born August 7, 1929) is an American painter associated with minimalist art. She began exhibiting her work at the Fischbach Gallery, New York, and other venues for contemporary art in the mid-1960s. In the mid-1970s, she turned away from non-objective painting. Since then, Baer has fused images, symbols, words, and phrases in a non-narrative manner, a mode of expression she once termed "radical figuration." She lives and works in Amsterdam, Netherlands.

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Baer is considered a participant in the development of Minimalism, through work that adhered to a vocabulary of visual elements, in predominantly white paintings with bands of color highlighting their edges. Though her early work was nonobjective, after a 1975 retrospective at the Whitney Museum, Baer moved to Ireland and began work that illustrated her own concept of “radical figuration,” which included fragmentary images, some sourced from art history. She is also known as a writer who countered Donald Judd and Robert Morris's notion of Minimalism in published statements.

Country of birth

United States


Artist, painter, writer

ULAN identifier



Jo Baer, Joe Baer, Josephine Gail Kleinberg

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Information from the Getty Research Institute's Union List of Artist Names ® (ULAN), made available under the ODC Attribution License. Accessed June 26, 2024.